You will definitely feel what air pollution is all about if you walk the streets of Ulaanbaatar in the morning or at night in winter. The city is entirely covered by black smog. In the ger district, one will not be able to see anything beyond the radius of 5 meters. It is hard to breathe. The smell of smoke will reek of everyone’s clothes. According to the WHO study, the size of poisonous smoke РМ10 per one square meter of air in Ulaanbaatar is 279 microgram, whereas in Washington DC it is 18 microgram. On the other hand, in Avhaz of Iran, where air pollution is worst, it is 372 microgram. In Ulaanbaatar, the air pollution is relatively low in summer, but in some locations in winter, the amount of smoke per square meter is 2000 microgram. Mongolia ranks No. 5 out of 10 most polluted countries of the world.
Ulaanbaatar is home to about half of 3 million citizens of Mongolia. Over 60% of the residents live in the ger district and 80% of air pollution is caused by coal burned in the ger district.
Cold and influenza break out tremendously in winter because of the air pollution. This causes setting quarantines in schools and kindergarten in recent years. As no new hospital was built since 1990, the workloads of hospitals are beyond imagination in the winter time.
INDICATORS TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED.
The first-ever gender assessment was conducted on the impacts of air pollution on vulnerable women of reproductive ages and the accessibility and quality of health services targeting the two remote ger district khoroos of Songinokhairkhan and Chingeltei districts where most people live in ger district. Organizations which worked on this issue developed these gender assessment indicators for the organizations to work on air pollution and environmental issues in the future.